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History Pegs

366-384 Pope Damasus

Pope Damasus said priests could continue to marry but were not allowed to express sexual love to their wives. Priests and people reject this law. (See John Shuster's "39 Popes Were Married," p. 6. and Uta Ranke-Heinemann's "Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven," p. 104.)

385 Pope Siricius

Pope Siricius abandoned his own wife and children to gain his papal position. (See John Shuster's "39 Popes Were Married," p. 6.)

391 Jovinian & His Eight Followers

They were excommunicated by Pope Sericius for convincing a number of consecrated virgins and male ascetics to get married. Emperor Theodosius, a friend of celibate Bishop Ambrose, had Jovinian flogged with a lead-tipped whip and banished to the Island of Boa where he died in 406. (See Heinemann, p. 58.)

461 Pope Leo I, the Great

He was the first to extend the ban on sexual intercourse to subdeacons. (See Ranke-Heinemann, p. 104.)

590-604 Pope Gregory I

He freed two of his slaves with admirable words about the natural liberty of all men but continued to use hundreds of slaves on papal estates. He approved laws forbidding slaves to become clerics or marry free Christians. Thousands of captured Slavs and Saracens were distributed among monasteries as slaves, and slavery on church lands and papal estates continued until the eleventh century. (See W. Durant, "The Age of Faith," p. 554; Nigel Cawthorne, "Sex Lives of the Popes," pp. 37-39.)

700 Sts. Winifred & Willibrord

He Christianized the area of Europe known as the Low Countries. (See Will Durant, pp. 534-535.)

904-911 Pope Sergius III

He and 19-year-old Mazoria, his mistress, had a son. (See Cawthorne's "Sex Lives of the Popes," p.64; and Pequeño Larousse, p. 1578.)

1049-1054 Pope Leo IX

He refused to expel sodomites from the ranks of the clergy at the urging of "St." Damian.

1074-1075 Pope Gregory VII

Forbade chaste matrimony to the priests, even though he himself had Countess Mathilda as his concubine. (See Cawthorne pp. 87.)

He formulated the claim of the Church to supremacy over the mind and the state. (See Durant, p. 74.)

He excommunicated Bishop Otto of Constance for openly favoring and protecting married priests. (Durant, p. 546.)

He commanded the dukes of Swabia and Carinthia, and other princes to use force if necessary to keep recalcitrant (married) priests from performing priestly functions. (Durant, p. 546.)

He deprived priests of their parishes who refused to dismiss their wives. (See Durant, p.546.)

1095 Pope Urban II

He ordered married priests who ignored celibacy laws be imprisoned for the good of their souls and sold their wives and children into slavery. The money went into church coffers. (See John Shuster, "39 Popes Were Married," p.9.)

He had stipulated at the Synod of Melfi that when a subdeacon was unwilling to be separated from his wife, "the prince may enslave his wife." — Decretum Gratiani, Pars II, dist. XXXII, c.10; Hefele, V, 175 (See Uta Ranke-Heinemann, "Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven," p. 110.)

1099 Archbishop Manasse II of Rheims He granted permission to the Count Flaunders to imprison the wives of clerics — Hefele V, 231 (See Heinemann, p. 110.)
1108 Anselm of Canterbury

He organized a London synod "which attempted to impose celibacy with might and main and declared that the wives of priests were the property of the bishop. (can.10)" ( See Heinemann, p. 110.)

1181 Pope Alexander III

He labeled and libeled priest's wives as "concubines" or "whores." (See Heinemann, p. 111.)

1198 Pope Innocent III

He required the Jews to wear a mark of disgrace. (See Ilana Shamir, Holmo Shavit, "Encyclopedia of Jewish History," p. 71.)

May 1204 Pope Innocent III

He oversaw the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade." (Nigel Cawthorne, "Sex Lives of the Popes," p.99.)

1204 Crusades

He sacked Constantinople and desecrated Orthodox sites of worship. (National Catholic Reporter, p.3, April 13, 2001, John L. Allen, Jr.)

1208 Pope Innocent III

He sent a crusade against the Cathars. (See Cawthorne, p. 98.)

1208-1216 Pope Innocent III

He labeled and libeled priests' wives as "adulteresses." (See Heinemann, p. 111.)

1215 Fourth Lateran Council

He forced all Jews to wear a red mantle, a circle of yellow cloth, or an orange cap. Only physicians attending the popes were exempt. (See John L. Allen's article, "The Unofficial Jubilee Year Guide to Rome," National Catholic Reporter, p. 26, Vol. 37, No.1.)

1231 Pope Gregory IX

He founded the Inquisition. (See Cawthorne, p. 100; and Will Durant's The Age of Faith, p. 388.)

1244 The Inquisition

The Inquisition destroyed the last of some 36 Cathar strongholds, Montsegur, France, where the remaining 200 plus Cathars are burned to death because they would not renounce their faith. See p.1.

1274 Pope Gregory X

A former Crusader and archdeacon, he deposed his former boss, the Bishop of Liege, who had 65 illegitimate children and 70 concubines, some of whom were nuns and one of whom was a Benedictine Abbess. (See Cawthorne, p. 110.)

1555 Pope Paul IV

He decreed that Jews must live segregated in their ghetto behind gates and that they must sell all their property to Christians (usually at tremendous discounts). "Every Sunday morning, Jews were compelled to go to Mass to listen to sermons exhorting them to convert to Christianity." (See "Destinations: The Unofficial Jubilee Year Guide to Rome," National Catholic Reporter, p. 26, Oct. 20, 2000, vol. 37, no. 1.)


"...Even the popes had Turkish galley slaves from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century." (See Will Durant's The Age of Voltaire, p. 68; and see L.T. Hobhouse's Morals in Evolution, p. 313.)

1864 Pope Pius IX

He attacked all new concepts of civil rights in Syllabus of Errors, which states that freedom of speech tends "more easily to corrupt the morals and minds of the people, and to propagate the pest of indifferentism." (See Allen, "The Unofficial Jubilee Year Guide to Rome," p. 27.)

1869-1870 Vatican Council I

The council declared the pope to be infallible. A small number of Catholics in Germany and neighboring countries separated from the Roman Catholic Church and formed the Old Catholic Church in protest. They took inspiration from renowned church historian Ignatz von Dolinger, who was excommunicated for refusing to accept Pastor Aeternus. (See Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 22, "Vatican Council, First: Introduction," p. 1.)

1870 Giuseppe Garibaldi

He led a successful revolt against papal power and the Papal States which included a large section of Italy, which are dismantled through his secular Italian republic. Garibaldi grants full Jewish emancipation. He represented "democracy, equality before the law, free speech, a free press, and all the other civil and human rights associated with a modern civil society." (Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 22, "Vatican Council, First: Introduction," p. 27.)

First Vatican Council

"(at which the hierarchy of the Church of Holland were refused admittance)." See p. 2.


Incorporation of the Archdiocese of Our Lady of Guadalupe of New Jersey, Old Catholic Church in America, under the leadership of Archbishop Patrick E. Trujillo. Constitution and By- Laws reflect democratic principles.

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